NMR spectroscopy can offer direct identification and quantification of a range of abundant analytes. NMR is typically more robust and reproducible than hyphenated LC–MS-based techniques and can allow the utilisation of libraries and inter-laboratory validation studies. Limitations are seen in method sensitivity – only the most abundant metabolites will be detected – and the high initial instrument acquisition cost. As a result NMR instruments and instrument time available for this type of work are both limited. Despite this, NMR spectroscopy is still the analytical tool that produces a high number of publications on metabolomics and metabonomics.